Electric Vehicle History

Electric vehicles have been around for many years, even though the general public think that electrically powered vehicles are a recent invention. This is because only in recent years these type of vehicles have become more widely known due to being considered as possible alternatives to vehicles powered by combustion engines in an effort to reduce emissions that contribute to Global warming.

An electrically powered small scale model car invented in 1828 in Hungary is considered by many as being the first invented electric vehicle. Others consider an electric powered carriage invented in the 1830’s in Scotland by Robert Anderson as the first electrical powered vehicle. Another small scale electric car was designed by Professor Stratingh and built by Christopher Becker, his assistant, in Holland in 1835. Thomas Davenport also built a small electric car in 1835. He also invented the first DC motor built in the US.

Unfortunately battery technology was not advanced enough to justify further development of these type of vehicles back then. It was not until the late 1890’s that the first true passenger electric vehicle was built by William Morrison in the US. In fact in the years 1899 and 1900 more electric vehicles were sold than other types of vehicles like gasoline and steam powered vehicles in the US.

In the 1900’s electric powered vehicles had many advantages as compared to their competitors. They didn’t have the smell, vibration as well as noise as did the gasoline vehicles. Also, changing gears on gasoline vehicles was the most complicated part of driving, while electrical automobiles did not require gear changes. Steam-powered cars additionally had no gear shifting, but they suffered from long start-up times of up to 45 minutes on cold early mornings.

Steam vehicles had less range before requiring water than an electric vehicle’s range on a single charge. The best roads of the period were in town, restricting most travel to local commuting, which was well suitable for electric vehicles, since their range was limited. The electric car was the preferred alternative of many because it did not require to manually turn the hand crank to start the engine as the gasoline vehicles needed and there was no wrestling with a gear shifter to change gears.

During World War I, the cost of petrol went through the roof contributing to the popularity of electric cars. This lead to the development of the Detroit Electric which started production in 1907. The car’s range between battery recharging was about 130km (80 miles). The range depended on exactly what type of battery came with the vehicle. The typical Detroit Electric was actually powered by a rechargeable lead acid battery, which did exceptionally well in cold weather.

But the popularity of the electric car quickly came to an end. With better roads being built not only within cities, but also connecting them, the need for longer range vehicles grew. This made the electric car an impractical means of transportation. Also the newly discovered oil in the state of Texas in the US which brought the price of gas down considerably, along with the electric starter invention in 1912 which eliminated the need for a hand crank, made the gasoline vehicle the vehicle of choice. And with Henry Ford making them extremely affordable to the general public by mass producing them, the fate of the electric vehicle was sealed for many years.

It wasn’t until the 1990’s that electric vehicles started resurfacing. With the Global warming issue, the exorbitant prices of imported crude oil and legislation for smog reduction in cities, electric vehicles not only resurfaced but this time are here to stay. One of the main reasons contributing to the re-birth of the electric car is the advance in battery technology. The lithium-ion battery packs and the nickel metal hybrid battery packs are much lighter than previous batteries and can hold enough charge to power a vehicle for 100’s of Miles at high speeds between charges making electrical vehicles efficient and practical.

Batteries – The Heart of the Electric Vehicle Conversion

The batteries are truly the heart of the EV conversion! Getting the right batteries for your ev conversion is essential and will ensure that you have many years of service from your converted vehicle. Deep cycle lead acid batteries, which can be further divided into flooded and sealed batteries, are used the most in electric vehicle conversions for the following reasons:

1. Deep cycle lead acid batteries are able to withstand repeated heavy discharging up to 30% of their capacity. They are able to withstand discharging to deeper levels for short periods of time, although this will affect their lifespan adversely.

2. Flooded Deep Cycle lead acid batteries are comparatively cheap, compared with other types of batteries and will last for quite a long time if you take care of them and do not discharge them beyond 30% of capacity and recharge them well when they are discharged.

3. Sealed Deep Cycle lead acid batteries are lighter than flooded batteries, which is beneficial when doing conversions with small vehicles and possibly some higher performance vehicles. They also do not need to only be placed upright and can therefore be placed into positions which are not possible with flooded lead acid batteries.

When considering which batteries to purchase for your electric vehicle conversion other factors which you should consider are:

1. The Life Cycle Cost
This is the initial cost of the batteries over the lifespan of the batteries, and can be a significant factor in determining which battery to use

2. Initial Cost Range
This is the initial cost of the batteries over the anticipated range, which can be used in conjunction with the life cycle cost in deciding which battery to use.

3. The Energy Density
This is amount of energy contained in a specific amount of the fuel source, that is the battery. Measured in watt-hours per pound, or watt-hours per kilogram it is a good way of determining which battery will best suit your conversion.

4. The amount of maintenance required.
Servicing an electric vehicle is not nearly as demanding as servicing a regular gas vehicle, however it is necessary to pay careful attention to the batteries in your electric vehicle as properly maintained batteries will last longer and therefore be cheaper per mile travelled.

As the batteries represent a considerable cost factor in your ev conversion you should carefully consider all these facts before choosing the batteries for your electric vehicle. And when you have made the decision and bought your battery set for your electric vehicle, be sure to take good care of them and then you will enjoy many miles of carefree and low cost traveling with your new electric vehicle. Enjoy the EV Grin!

Used Car For Sale – A Guide

With the option of used cars on sale, a car can now be easily purchased. There are numerous advantages and ways to search for a used car on sale.

A decade before, one was dependent just on personal contacts or local automobile dealers or classified ads. Now, one can just surf the Internet, search for used cars that are available for sale in as big a range as one wants, pay online and get the car delivered. Things have become so simple, thanks to technology.

Advantages of Buying a Used Car

There are many of us who prefer to buy a used car on sale when it comes to buying our first car. Moreover, there are many benefits attached to buying used cars

* If you are buying a used car from the dealer, you have an advantage of getting your car repaired on the dealer shop itself and your car could be fixed at cheaper prices.

* Another point to consider is that you might find some defects or some other problems in it. However in that case, you may bargain and ask the dealer to sell the it in a somewhat lesser value than the actual amount.

* Lots of used cars come with a warranty program and proper certification which is an additional advantage.

* To purchase it from the private owner can be beneficial as well since you are likely to get the car at a better price than you would from a used car sale or dealer.

How to Search For a Used Car for Sale

If you are contemplating to buying an old car and wondering where to find used cars for sale then all that is required is a little research.

* You can choose to buy a second hand car from a local dealer or you could browse various websites for the best deals on such cars.

* Some private owners also prefer to sell their used car and put advertisements in the newspapers.

* There is end number of used cars for sale in the market. You may consider your budget and accordingly search for the car that serves your needs the best.

* Research on the Internet. There are several websites which would provide you plenty of useful data.

Points To Remember While Buying an Old Car

* Before buying a used car, remember to always check the model and its make.

* You could run through the details of the used car for sale. You must thoroughly inspect the car to ensure that it is free from any defects.

* Some other features for instance power windows, key less entry; child lock facility, power steering, etc. could also be explored.

* Do not rush. Evaluate the condition of the car and try to look out for maximum information related to the car.

* Sometimes you may feel that there are some dealers who put up advertisements in the newspapers related to the used car sale are trying to move their car quickly and offering it at a great discounted price. You need to be extra careful in cases like this. Do remember that the buyer always has options of asking questions which he may have regarding the product.

* You could probably meet the dealer or car owner in person and find out the required information about the car or you can also ask the questions from the owner or the dealer through email.

* Questions like vehicle identification number, mileage, distance it has run, etc. may be put to the dealer.

* Make sure that you check the papers of the car as well.

There are several websites that give relevant information about used cars for sale by owners. Invest some time for the car you have been looking for and also compare its features with other cars.

Does Your Hybrid Vehicle Qualify for Full Tax Credits?

Not all 2007 tax credits for hybrid vehicles are the same, even if the taxpayer bought the same car. How is that possible?

The 2005 Energy Act providing tax credits for new hybrid vehicle owners include qualifications that the owners must meet. Some of the qualifications such as the following are clear cut.

1. The vehicle must be bought on or before 12/31/10 and driven or used after 12/31/05.

2. The tax credit may be claimed only by the original owner of the new hybrid. A preowned or used hybrid vehicle does not qualify for the credit.

3. In order to take advantage of their credit, some first time owners of hybrid vehicles might have to recapture their tax credit if they resell their hybrid car or truck.

4, The vehicle must be driven mainly in the United States.

5. If a hybrid vehicle is leased, the leasing company has the right to claim the tax credit, as the credit is only available to the original purchaser of the hybrid vehicle.

So far the hybrid owner only needs to take basic precautions. But the Energy Act goes farther and places other qualifications to consider such as the date of purchase and number of hybrids sold per car manufacturer.

The number of hybrids is limited by 60,000 hybrids per car manufacturers that may be claimed for taxes. Two hybrids that have met the 60,000 mark in June 2006 are Toyota and Lexus hybrids. Buyers who purchased their Toyota hybrid or Lexus hybrid before October 1 will have 100 percent of their tax credit. While buyers who purchased their hybrids on or after October 1 will have a tax credit that is reduced by 50 percent.

That means that some buyers of a new Prius or Lexus hybrid vehicle will qualify for the full $3,150 tax credit. While other buyers of the same vehicle will receive only a $1,575 tax credit. Therefore, the amount that the taxpayer may claim is not only based on the amount the vehicles qualifies for but also is based on the date the hybrid was purchased.

It should be noted that the tax credit will not last forever, but will be phased out by 2010. This is hurried along by reducing the amount of tax claims until it is gone.

For example, after 60,000 vehicles are sold, the taxpayer may claim the full amount of credit for that first quarter. For the second and third quarter after 60,000 vehicles are sold, the taxpayer may claim half or 50 percent of the tax credit. During the fourth and fifth quarter, the taxpayer may claim 25 percent of tax claim. After the fifth quarter the 60,000 vehicles are sold, no tax credit may be claimed.

A further limitation in claiming a tax credit is based on the type of vehicle purchased. This involves the amount of reduced emissions and fuels saved by the said vehicle. Only the type of vehicle is considered. Price is not a factor. You would guess that the more expensive hybrids would bring a higher tax credit. But, this is not always the case. For example, a $40,000 Lexus RX 400h hybrid commands a maximum of only a $2,200 tax credit.

Another consideration in limiting tax credits is the Alternative Minimum Tax (ATM), which may disqualify some other taxpayers.

Other hybrid manufacturers such Honda, Ford, GM have not meet the 60,000 limit and still qualify for the full amount. You do not have the same considerations, at the present time, that others such as Toyota hybrid owners must contend with.